Course Description


“Introduction to Synchrophasors” provides an essential primer on synchrophasor (or phasor) technology. The course covers essential aspects of this technology – what is measured, the various components, terminology, concepts, advantages and uses.

The course provides a well-rounded understanding of synchrophasors. It consists of 5 sessions each focusing on a key area of synchrophasors, and together, the 5 sessions form a strong foundational understanding and awareness of the domain. Each session is of approximately 1 hr. of instruction. They are:

1. Synchrophasor Fundamentals (Instructor: Ken Martin)

2. Synchrophasor Metrics – Use in Real Time Operations (Instructor: Wayne Schmus)

3. Phase Angle Differences – How Can They Be Used in Operations? (Instructor: Jim Dyer)

4. Grid Event Signatures – Use in Operations to Detect & Diagnose Grid Events (Instructor: Prashant Palayam)

5. Power System Oscillations – Types, Causes, and Monitoring (Instructor: Kevin Chen)

Course Enrollment

Individual Enrollment:

This course with 5 sessions is available at $1,500. Please find the course brochure and enrollment form here. For course enrollment, please complete the enrollment form and send it back to EPG.

Corporate Subscription:

For corporate subscription involving multiple users, or an evaluation account, please contact Neeraj Nayak (Phone: 626-685-2015 ext. 129).

Sessions - Outline

Session 1: Synchrophasor Fundamentals

Synchrophasor Fundamentals is the first session in the "Introduction to Synchrophasors" course. This session provides an introduction to synchrophasors and covers the following topics:

  • Phasors ‐ Fundamentals
  • Synchrophasors ‐ Definition and Description
  • Synchrophasor Attributes - Essential Properties
  • Applying Synchrophasors - Measurement Principles and Examples
  • Synchrophasor Technology Infrastructure - Components and Data Flow

A preview of this session is available here.

Session 2: Synchrophasor Metrics - Use in Real-Time Operations

This is the second session in the "Introduction to Synchrophasors" course. This session describes synchrophasor metrics and explains how these metrics can be used in real time operations. The topics covered in this session are given below:

  • Introduction to Synchrophasor Metrics
  • Phase Angle Differences - How to use phase angle differences to assess grid stress?
  • Voltage Sensitivity - How to use voltage sensitivities to assess voltage stability
  • Frequency Deviations ‐ How to use frequency deviations to assess grid disturbances and instability?
  • Oscillations - How to use synchrophasors to assess the risk posed by oscillations?

A preview of this session is available here.

Session 3: Phase Angle Differences - How Can They Be Used in Operations?

This is the third session in the "Introduction to Synchrophasors" course. This session describes phase angle differences and explains how they can be used in real time operations. The topics covered in this session are given below:

  • Definition & Importance of Phase Angle Differences for Operations
  • Phase Angle Differences – What are safe values?
  • Importance of PMU Location
  • Use of Phase Angles in Control Rooms ‐ Line Closing
  • Case Study – 8 Bus System
  • Use of Phase Angles in Control Rooms ‐ Islanding & System Separation
  • Phasor Assisted Line Reclosing
A preview of this session is available here.

Session 4: Grid Event Signatures - Use in Operations to Detect & Diagnose Grid Events

This is the fourth session in the "Introduction to Synchrophasors" course. This session describes different types of grid events and their signatures. The topics covered in this session are given below:

  • Introduction to Grid Event Signatures
  • Types of Grid Event Signatures ‐ Generation Trip, Line Fault, Line Trip, Load Trip, Islanding, Oscillations
  • Identify Event Type Using System Frequency Signature
  • Event Diagnosis ‐ Using Synchrophasor Metrics
  • Corrective Action and Validation Using Signatures
  • Case Study – Generation Trip and Line Trip

A preview of this session is available here.

Session 5: Power System Oscillations - Types, Causes, Monitoring

This is the fifth session in the "Introduction to Synchrophasors" course. This session describes power system oscillations and how to detect and monitor oscillations in the power grid. The topics covered in this session are given below:

  • Introduction to Power System Oscillations
    • What are oscillations?
    • Why are oscillations important?
    • Characteristics of Oscillations - Frequency, Damping, Amplitude & Phase
    • Types of Oscillations
  • Identifying and Analyzing Oscillations
  • Oscillation Monitoring
  • Oscillation Detection
  • Use Cases
    • Inter-area oscillation
    • Wind power plant forced oscillation
    A preview of this session is available here.


This course assumes a basic understanding of the following power grid concepts :

  1. Voltage
  2. Current
  3. Substation Components and Operation
    1. Potential (Voltage) Transformer (PT)
    2. Current Transformer (CT)
  4. Control Room Operation

Proficiency Evaluation

Each session in this course consists of a quiz in the form of multiple choice questions. The quiz should be taken after going through the session material.The quiz is available under the coursework section. For NERC Continuing Education Hours (CEH), passing score required for each session quiz is 80%.

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(Runs through August 13, 2019)

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Course Instructors

Ken  Martin

Ken Martin

Kenneth Martin is a principal engineer with the Electric Power Group (EPG). He has over 35 years experience in the electric utility industry, starting at the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and including work in communication, precise timing, instrumentation, and testing. He started working with synchrophasor measurement with the original PMUs in 1987. He developed the phasor measurement system at BPA including building the first phasor data concentrator, and supported similar developments at many utilities. Mr. Martin chaired the development of the IEEE C37.118 Synchrophasor Standards from 2000 through the current 60255-118-1 IEC-IEEE standard under development. Mr. Martin is a Fellow of the IEEE and a registered Professional Engineer. Ken is internationally recognized authority on synchrophasors and regularly provides consultation to DoE, NIST and actively participates in industry forums including IEEE, NASPI, JSIS and others.

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Wayne Schmus

Wayne Schmus

Mr. Schmus earned a BS in Engineering at Harvey Mudd College in Claremont, CA. His 34 year career at Southern California Edison Company included 25 years in transmission and generation planning attaining the position of Manager of Transmission Planning. His specialties were stability, interconnections and reliability. He also held the positions of Chief Engineer Distribution Automation, Manager Distribution Maintenance, and Manager System Protection. For two years, he chaired the NERC Subcommittee on Reliability Assessment At EPG, Wayne is responsible for research initiatives, project management and special projects. Wayne is leading the EPG team on a DoE funded project on Development of a Direct Non-Iterative State Estimator that utilizes Synchrophasor and SCADA data. Mr. Schmus is a Registered Professional Electrical Engineer in California.

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Jim Dyer

Jim Dyer

Jim Dyer formerly a Manager of System Operation and Energy Control Center, Southern California Edison. Mr. Dyer has extensive experience in WECC and NERC on operations, transmission, reliability management and blackout investigations. Jim has been with EPG for 16 years and has been guiding the utilization of phasor technologies and development of phasor applications for use by real time operators, dispatchers and reliability coordinators at CAISO, ERCOT, SCE and by NASPI members and has been involved with NASPI since its inception.

Jim has delivered training programs on use of synchrophasors in real-time operations to industry bodies, control center staff, planners and engineers. His training programs combine his experience in operating one of the largest power systems in the United States and his expertise in synchrophasors.

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Prashant Palayam

Prashant Palayam

Has led research and analytics initiatives for ERCOT, NYISO, PJM, WECC, CAISO, as well as R&D projects from DOE, CCET, CERTS, etc. Prashant's expertise includes analyzing and characterizing grid dynamics involving oscillations, events, reactive zones, frequency response, data quality, data mining and baselining.

Prashant leads the EPG team as Product Manager for industry leading offline analytics software, the Phasor Grid Dynamics Analyzer (PGDA). He has led the research and development of event simulations and simulation tools for understanding grid behavior and training.

He is an experienced trainer having conducted training programs for EPG’s customers and industry organizations on synchrophasor data analysis, grid events signatures and analytic tools. Prashant is a graduate of Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL with a Master's in power systems engineering.

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Kevin Chen

Kevin Chen

Has extensive expertise and experience in the areas of real time grid dynamics. As the product manager for EPG’s portfolio of real-time solutions - the Real Time Dynamics Monitoring System and associated products, Kevin works with customers, users and industry for implementing and enhancing the use of synchrophasor technologies in grid operations and analytics.

Kevin has conducted research and development related to voltage stability, phasor dynamics in transmission/distribution, oscillations, power flow and power systems transient programming. Kevin has applied his experience to research and application of advanced techniques to reliability issues related to reactive margins, contingencies, grid dynamics, nomograms, oscillation detection and damping.

He has developed and conducted training programs in the area of real time monitoring and use of EPGs portfolio of solutions for both EPG’s customers including Dominion, Duke Energy, CAISO, ERCOT, NYISO, PJM, SCE as well represented at NASPI, JSIS, IEEE.

Kevin completed his M.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He is a licensed Professional Engineer in Electrical Engineering in the State of California, USA.

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